光活性半导体（即光催化剂，光电极等）的功能在很大程度上取决于三个关键方面：（i）带隙; （ii）导带最小值和价带最大值的绝对电位; （iii）体积和表面电荷载流子动力学。它们与控制半导体的能量学和光电化学机制的相关性促使开发了大量的表征工具来探测材料的特定特性。本课程旨在总结目前的实验技术，包括传统和最先进的工具，旨在研究半导体的关键方面（i），（ii）和（iii）。虽然不是详尽无遗，但这门课程对学生的帮助可用于对表征光电（催化剂）半导体的复杂研究工具的了解，以及桥接多学科知识。
The functionality of a photoactive semiconductor (i.e., photocatalysts, photoelectrodes, etc.) is largely dictated by three key aspects: (i) band gap; (ii) absolute potentials of the conduction band minimum and the valence band maximum; and (iii) bulk and surface charge carrier dynamics. Their relevance to governing the energetics and the photo(electro)chemical mechanisms of the semiconductor has prompted development of a multitude of characterization tools to probe the specific characteristic of the material. This course aims to summarize the current experimental techniques, including the conventional and the state-of-the-art tools, directed at examining the key aspects (i), (ii), and (iii) of semiconductors. Although not being exhaustive, this course can be useful to student community of the sophisticated research tools currently available for characterization of photo(electro)catalyst semiconductors as well as to bridge the multidisciplinary knowledge.